Let’s suppose that a male had to face a traffic accident and he was rushed to hospital where he got blood transfusion but due to the negligence on the part of the medical staff on duty the transfused blood wasn’t fully screened for different kinds of possible infections which were transmitted by blood.
He is now suffering from AIDS (Auto immune deficiency syndrome). Another person admitted in the opposite room to the trauma center was undergoing treatment for the infection he contracted HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) after he had unsafe sex with multiple sex partners. The attending paramedic staff is at risk to get this infection through a single prick of the needle which is used to inject medicines to the HIV patient.
HIV or AIDS
Is mostly sexually transmitted and in some cases, transferred by needle pricks and unscreened blood transfusion. In this disease, the immune system of the person becomes deficient as the virus infects the white blood cells and makes the number of protective T cells to decrease. CD4+ T cells form a major part of human immune system but they are decreased in person suffering from HIV and the natural cell mediated immunity of human body towards infections is lost.The person is vulnerable to infections which are opportunistic in nature. Males form the huge bulk of population suffering from HIV.
Signs and Symptoms of the conditionThe disease takes around an average 10 years to show manifest its signs and symptoms when the immune cells are very low in count. The initial symptoms are flu like in nature with swollen glands in throat, armpit or groin. There may be fever, headache or fatigue. AIDS develops when the opportunistic infections takes place. These include oral thrush (fungal infection of the throat), unexplained weight loss, rash, muscle and joint pains. The person becomes weaker with time and succumbs to variety of fungal, bacterial, viral and protozoal infections.
How can it be diagnosed?The diagnosis of HIV is made by screening for antibody and antigen for DNA of virus detection as well as RNA which helps in early diagnosis within 10 days of disease contraction. Though is no definitive treatment for HIV and anti-retroviral, anti HIV and anti AIDS drugs are given which helps to prevent the virus replication and duplication process. This helps in delaying the time of death which is inevitable. The treatment for opportunistic infections is supportive in nature and drugs are given according to the causative agents.
Prevention is better than curePrevention is better than dying from a disease which has no cure as yet. It is advised that the person practice safe sex and with single partner using an appropriate barrier method. Screening for the disease can be done in order to detect the primary case which acts as a source. Needle pricks are to be avoided if a case of HIV is known. Counselling is to be done of the person and his family regarding giving support to him and encouraging him for a better living. He is not to be isolated from all the others and should be treated as one of them. It is better that “temporary sexual pleasure is sacrificed for a longer and healthy life”. Awareness campaigns needs to be done against HIV as this is one of the causes of death in men.
Credit: The Manly Zone